In 1870s, the hopefulness began to evaporate in England. There are many critical issues appeared on that time such as the emergence of Germany and United States a political and economical rivals, Boer Wars, arguing on stronger imperial policy and many else.
The industrial activities are running brutally. Children become part of the organization, the city become a bit tension, enhance of the capitalism and many more. Therefore, the situation which is ‘bit tension’ driving the end products of industrialism. For an example, there are textile, furniture and products brutally produced by the factory. However, the output are defined as a ’soulless’. There are nothing to enjoy on your blouse at that time, your chair is just a medium for you to sit, your house is just a place for you to sleep. Simply and direct talking, there is nothing for you to enjoy detail on that time. Cheap one lah.
So, people tried to make something that could differentiate them. As for this case, there need something to define their status. Therefore, arts and craft become their passionate coz yeah who dare to pay craftsmen?..of course the wealthy one rite?...So we could said that art and craftsmen are resistant to making connections to industry as they were frustrated by what they perceived as the drift toward mechanization.
Arts and Crafts idea was intrigued by the anti-machine guilds. It is expressed by John Ruskin (1819-1900),
“It is not, truly speaking, the labour that is divided; but the men: divided into mere segments of men-broken into small fragments and crumbs of life; so that all the little piece of intelligence that is left in a man is not enough to make a pin, or a nail, but exhausts itself in making the point of a pin or the head of a nail.”
He also add, “We are always in these days endeavouring to separate the two; we want one man to be always thinking, and another to be always working , as we call one a gentleman and the other an operative ; whereas the workman ought often to be thinking, and thinker often to be working, and both should be gentlemen in the best sense”
|William Morris (right) with artist Edward Burne-Jones, 1890.|
Ruskin believed that the industrialization has fractionated the society to classes and he was frustrated by the system, as the thinker was not the maker at the same time. The situation become the turning point for Britain, as next Ruskin met with Morris, a real craftsman who possess the same thinking as his. Then, they've become arts and crafts guild that advocate the idea of arts and crafts. Imperfection that made the art becomes explicit. Morris, who design and produce his own works was the man of the time. He believes that art does not compromise with commercialism which has made his works can only be afford by the rich class.
|Design for "Tulip and Willow" indigo-discharge wood-block printed fabric, 1873|
Therefore I do believe the "Joy of Work" expression suits the art and craftsmen thinking. When there was a thinker and maker is a same person on the same time, the product produce could be awesome. Then it’ll clearly define the joy of it...the joy of work.